Markup languages

There is plenty of markup languages around, and often it is not easy to pick one for a task at hand. I am going to put together a few observations here.

And since I'm interested in exporting documents into HTML, Atom feeds, and Texinfo, those aspects will be mentioned explicitly. It is assumed that quality of non-native export/conversion is rather low.

Languages

LaTeX

It is an advanced markup language, and it is great in many aspects, so I will only list its cons.

Cons:

Use cases: it's great for complex documents, involving diagrams or mathematical formulæ, or for anything that could use templates, but could be excessive in other cases. "LaTeX is the de facto standard for the communication and publication of scientific documents."

SGML- and XML-based ones

XHTML can be nicely generated out of XML with XSLT (which is pretty neat for templating), as well as atom feeds. Use of data models such as DITA and DocBook brings additional pros and cons, so they are summarized separately.

Pros:

Cons:

Data models (DITA, DocBook, perhaps others)

Pros:

Cons:

Org-mode

Pros:

Cons:

Use cases: all kinds of notes, static websites, probably basic info files.

Texinfo

Pros:

Cons:

Use cases: its primary purpose is to create technical manuals, and it seems to be good at that, so anything manual-alike is what it's good for.

Markdown

And its derivatives, e.g. "GitHub Flavored Markdown". Actually, there's not much to write here: it's basic and messy (if you throw all the flavours into the same bucket; some may be less messy), which is both good and bad. Probably mostly bad.

Use cases: by itself, it's not much better than textual files, and doesn't even replace those, since it's harder to read as plain text. But HTML export (e.g., using Hakyll/Pandoc) is nice, especially since one of markdown flavours is what Pandoc aims for in its internal representation.

reStructuredText and Sphinx

Probably I shouldn't mix those together, but that's what I'm doing.

Pros:

Cons:

Though the cons don't actually apply to the language itself.

Use cases: manuals, documentation, READMEs (quite comfortable to read as plain text).

Others

PostScript is a surprisingly readable and somewhat nice for a language that is usually used as a target to compile other languages (perhaps LaTeX most of the time) into.

Conclusion

As usual, it's all about preferences, priorities, and tasks. Though it's tempting to pick a single language for everything, it's like with programming languages – there's just no existing solution that would be good for everything (and if one thinks that they've found one, that's probably a "golden hammer").

See also

Wikipedia: Comparison of document markup languages, List of document markup languages.